To start, please see the terms defined below:
(1) Cryptographic Key. In cryptography, a key is a string of characters used within an encryption algorithm for altering data so that it appears random. Like a physical key, it locks (encrypts) data so that only someone with the right key can unlock (decrypt) it.
(2) EMS. An Election Management System is a database management system used to enter jurisdiction information (reporting units, districts, etc.) as well as election specific information (races, candidates, etc.). In addition, the EMS is also used to lay out the ballots (list the correct contests on each ballot), program election data to be individually loaded onto tabulators, upload the results, and produce the results reports.
(3) Firewall. A network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.
(4) IP Address. Computer networks identify devices based on a numeric identifier called an IP (Internet Protocol) address. For example, home internet service typically has an IP address assigned by the internet service provider. Devices within the home are assigned IP addresses by the router – a machine that routes traffic within the network.
(5) Modem. A device that converts data from a digital format to a format for analog transmission over telephone or radio.
(6) SFTP. Secure File Transfer Protocol is a secure file transfer protocol that uses secure encryption to provide a high level of security for sending and receiving information.
(7) Tabulator. A machine used to count votes done by paper ballot. Some tabulators can communicate directly with the EMS. In Wisconsin, tabulators capable of communication can only do so before or after the election